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PRINCIPAL AREAS OF CONCERN

I	PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

	Goals:

1.	Extend primary health care to all women throughout all stages of their life 
	cycles, including but not limited to motherhood, family planning and sexually 
	transmitted diseases.
2. 
	Expand primary health care services at the grassroots level by the year 2000, 
	with leadership in the hands of local women leaders sensitive to the needs of 
	their communities.
3.	Incorporate strong health education programs as part of primary care 
	without the intervention of  commercial interests. 
4.	Provide job opportunities and training to support wise health decisions.
5.	Ensure that surgery is performed only with informed consent based on full 
	understanding of the nature and possible negative results of the surgery and 
	of the skill of the surgeon.
6.	Ensure informed consent before inclusion in experimentation. 
7.	Ensure access to and testing of alternative and traditional medicines and the 
	knowledge of indigenous peoples.
8.	Eradicate discrimination against women with disabilities.

To that end we recommend the following actions:

9.	Combat gender bias in access to immunization and curative services for 
	infectious diseases.
10.	Establish day care centers and mother friendly work environments.
11.	Ensure equal delivery of health services for girls in oral rehydration and 
	nutrition, including breastfeeding.
12.	Disseminate information on major health risks to planners and funders of 
	health programs.
13.	Target screening efforts to high-risk groups.
14.	Coordinate women's health services with other services and programs such 
	as potable water, environmental protection, and occupational safety.
15.	Create and support regional centers for diagnosis and/or treatment of 
	cancers.
16.	Make information available on the training, skill, and professional history of 
	all medical practitioners. 
17.	Develop detoxification and rehabilitation programs that meet the specific 
	needs of female addicts and  substance abusers and make them affordable and 
	accessible to women of all ages and backgrounds.
18.	Develop appropriate health systems for crisis care.
19.	Ensure access to health clinics and hospitals for women with disabilities.

II	EDUCATION FOR HEALTH

	Goals:

20.	Expand public awareness of good health behaviors.
21.	Promote educational opportunities for girls to increase their options in later 	life.
22.	Support training programs that help develop women's leadership in health 
	care policy and promotion.

	Actions:

23.	Ensure school attendance for the girl: literacy is a major factor in improving 
	health status, particularly for women and girls.
24.	Educate women and girls on (1) hygiene; (2) the importance of screening and 
	identification of symptoms for early detection and treatment of disease; (3) 
	reproductive physiology and sexual health; (4) safe use of drugs such as 
	antidepressants and tranquilizers.
25.	Promote breast feeding to enable women to have birth intervals of at least 
	30 months and as a family planning method.
26.    Educate women on the benefits of breastfeeding in reducing the risk of breast 
	and ovarian cancer.
27.	Provide information on exercise and nutrition.
28.	Involve women's groups in education for the promotion of good health.
29.	Provide sex education starting at an appropriate age (before sexual activity 
	is initiated) in a manner suitable for women of varying regions and cultures 
	taught in their own language, including discussion of abuses and the 
	fundamentals of birth control and reproductive health.
30.	Publicize the adverse health effects of smoking and alcohol abuse.

III	EDUCATION FOR HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS

	Goals:

31.	Reorient training of health care providers to place health in the broader 
	context of human rights, particularly with respect to the gender context of 
	women's unequal status and from women's perspectives of their needs and 
	experiences.
32.	Encourage the integration of traditional and Western health procedures and 
	medicines for optimal health in indigenous communities.

	Actions:

33.	Require medical school curricula to recognize human rights and socio-	economic factors, and the diversity of local health value systems which 
	negatively affects health.
34.	Train and educate health care workers in the treatment of women's health: 
	emphasize the importance of screening, identification of symptoms, and 
	counseling.
35.	Train health workers to recognize conditions related to the stages of 
	women's life cycle.
36.	Establish community programs to train health care workers, local residents 
	and law enforcement officers to recognize and respond appropriately to signs 
	of physical and mental violence against women and girls.
37.	Provide training programs for health personnel regarding the specific needs 
	of women and girls with disabilities.
38.	Require continuing education for already certified professionals in new 
	developments in the fields of nutrition and disease preventions. 
39.	Ensure that all health information is free of commercial bias.

IV	NEGATIVE CULTURAL PRACTICES AFFECTING THE HEALTH OF WOMEN AND GIRLS

Since negative cultural practices are a manifestation of ideals and misinformation, there is a need for a new approach and a concerted effort to eliminate them.
	Goals:

40.	Eliminate all forms of negative cultural practices by the year 2010, 
	including but not limited to marriage before maturity, insufficient diet 
	during pregnancy, female infanticide, dowry deaths, negative cults of beauty, 
	hymen fixation, widows being obliged to marry their brothers-in-law, suttee, 
	etc.
41.	Eradicate female genital mutilation by the year 2000, of all girls subject to 
	it and born in 1994 and thereafter.
42.	Develop policies and programs that will result by the year 2000 in a 70% risk 
	reduction among girls born in 1993 and before, who might be subject to 
	female genital mutilation between the ages of two and the onset of puberty, 
	and/or at later life cycles depending on the custom of populations practicing 
	female genital mutilation.

	Actions:

 43.	Educate communities about the health consequences of negative cultural 
	practices such as female genital mutilation.

V	ENVIRONMENT AND WOMEN'S HEALTH

	Goals:

44.	Assure safe water supply.
45.	Allocate all necessary resources for the provision of potable water for all 
	communities.
46.	Promote sustainable agriculture to provide adequate nutrition and limit 
	dietary deficiencies.

	Actions:

47.	Research and monitor the specific effects of deforestation and the use of 
	pesticides and fertilizers on women, and develop policies and programs to 
	lessen these effects.
48.	End dumping of waste by industrialized countries in developing countries.
49.	Regulate waste disposal to reduce reproductive and other health risks.
50.	Legislate management of toxic waste.
51.	Promote research into the effects of environmental toxins, particularly on 
	the immune system.
52.	Examine the effect of pesticides on pregnant women and fetuses in relation 
	to birth defects, cancer and immune disease.

VI	NUTRITION AND WOMEN / GIRLS' HEALTH NUTRITION  

	Goals:

53.	Provide adequate nutrition for females of all ages taking into consideration 
	the special nutritional needs of each stage of life.

	Actions:

54.	Eliminate deficiencies of vitamin A, iodine, calcium, and iron among women.
55.	Coordinate nutrition programs wherever possible with other health services 
	and other health education programs in keeping with the nutritional and 
	health goals outlined in the Plan of Action from the International Conference 
	on Nutrition.

VII 
	OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

	Goals:

56.	Promote the development and use of safe technologies.
57.	Ensure and monitor safe and healthy working conditions in factories, fields, 
	and offices for both men and women.
58.	Ensure that the definition of safe working conditions is not used as grounds 
	for discriminatory firings or failure to hire women.

 
	Actions:

59.	Set up programs to detect and manage occupational toxins.
60.	Train health care workers to recognize symptoms of occupational illness.
61.	Enact and enforce laws prohibiting child labor.
62.   Report on health disorders and wasting diseases, particularly among rural 
	workers.

VIII	REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

a. 
	Integration

63.   Require providers to coordinate and integrate wherever possible reproductive 
	health with other health services, maternal and child health and family 
	planning.
64.   Support family planning clinics to provide infertility services as well as 
	services for reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases.

b.	Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health

65.   Promote community support in dealing with obstetric emergencies requiring 
	transportation, communication, and blood donation.
66.	Provide access for all women to prenatal care, trained attendants during 
	childbirth, and referral for high-risk pregnancies and obstetric emergencies.
67.	Apply treatment guidelines/protocols for the management of maternal 
	complications.
68.	Support breastfeeding and family planning services.
69.	Enact and enforce legislation for paid maternity leave of at least three 
	months.
70.	Promote, protect and support breastfeeding and integrate it into health 
	education and services.
71.	Integrate abortion-related care into Safe Motherhood strategies.
72.	Train medical staff in the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MA).
73.	Conduct birth-spacing and family-planning programs with sensitivity to 
	local values and prohibitions.
74.	Ensure ready access to family planning services, humane treatment of 
	abortion complications, and safe abortion services.
75.	Increase availability of all family planning methods, temporary and 
	permanent, commodity based and natural.
76.	Train health care workers in management of complications resulting from 
	unsafe abortions.
77.	Educate and provide information to communities regarding causes and 
	treatment of infertility.

c.	Sexually Transmitted Diseases

78.	Establish "well-women clinics" offering comprehensive reproductive health 
	services to help avoid the stigmatization of STD clinics.
79.   
	Ensure access to testing and treatment services for Sexually Transmitted 
	Diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS and Reproductive track Infections (RTIs), condoms 
	and other preventive methods and education about their use to the public at 
	large.
80.	Educate women on preventive behavior and recognition of signs of STDs, 
	including HIV and RTIs.
81.   Train health workers in detection and treatment of STDs/RTIs.
82.	Educate communities on the dangers of negative traditional practices that 
	put them at risk of contracting and spreading STDs, HIV and RTIs.
83.	Develop community guidelines for education and counseling about STDs, HIV 
	and RTIs; involve all health and community leaders, including traditional 
	birth attendants and traditional healers.
84.	Screen clients for risk factors and infections before giving contraceptives.
85.	Encourage governments to commit resources to education, prevention, care, 
	treatment and research in   HIV/AIDS.
86.	Screen all blood for all infectious diseases.

IX 
	AGING WOMEN

	Goals:

87.	Eliminate discrimination and prejudice against aging women.
88.	Recognize the older woman's role in child care, and in maintaining and 
	transmitting the cultural history and wisdom of the community.

	Actions:

89.	Develop measures to prevent falls and teach protection against criminal 
	assault.
90.	Examine the following variables and their relationship to older women's  
	health: life stress, workload levels, nutrition, repeated pregnancies, 
	sanitation, housing and health care. 
91.	Integrate into governmental and social planning the particular requirements 
	of the very old who in many societies are the fastest growing segment of the 
	population. 
92.	Insure care and screening of aging women in special medical aspects of that 
	stage in the life cycle and train health workers to recognize conditions 
	related to aging women.
93.	Strengthen social support systems for aging women in all health services.
94.	Provide facilities for care of aging women.

X	REFUGEES AND DISPLACED PERSONS

	Goals:

95.	Recognize that the international community has the responsibility to protect 
	and assist refugees and displaced persons.
96.	Recognize that health problems (including rape and malnutrition) of refugee 
	and displaced women require special attention.
 
	Actions:

97.	Develop facilities to treat new and pre-existing illnesses and handicaps in 
	order to alleviate additional suffering and allow refugees and displaced 
	persons to care for their families.
98.	Develop and support health delivery systems appropriate to the needs of 
	refugees and displaced persons.

XI	INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS

	Goals:

99.	Recognize and acknowledge indigenous women's primary role in traditional 
	health care and involve them in treatment processes.

	Actions:

100.    Consult indigenous women in the development and implementation of health 
	programs affecting them.
101.   Train indigenous women as health care practitioners.
102.   Utilize traditional practices of health care where appropriate, in 
	conjunction with Western health procedures for optimal health in indigenous 
	communities.
103.   Develop and support health delivery systems appropriate to the needs of 
	indigenous populations.

	

XII	HUMAN RIGHTS  OF WOMEN

		Goals:

104.    Recognize health as a human right.
105.    Recognize that women's health is a necessary precondition to full 
	enjoyment of human rights.
106.    Recognize Safe Motherhood as a human rights issue.

	Actions:

107.    Empower girls from a young age to understand their rights, including 
	education, health, political participation, and to promote and demand their 
	rights.
108.    Support women's reproductive rights, including access to safe abortion and 
	the right to refuse coercive methods (e.g. forced sterilization).	
109.    Provide information, education, and the means for women to exercise their 
	right to decide freely  and responsibly on the number of children they choose 
	to have.	
110.    Uphold women's right to health at all stages of their lives, providing access 
	to effective preventive, diagnostic and curative care regardless of their 
	economic status.
111.    Outlaw the use of sterilization and abortion against nationalities and 
	minorities as a means of political control.
112.    Support women's right to breastfeed  and to space the births of their 
	children.

XIII	VIOLENCE AND WOMEN'S HEALTH

	Goals:

113.    Recognize women's right to be free of violence.

	Actions:

114.    Enact, enforce and monitor laws prohibiting all forms of violence (physical, 
	sexual and psychological) against women and children, with a special focus 
	on girls as declared in the convention on the elimination on all forms of 
	discrimination against women, CEDAW and the Convention on the Rights of 
	the Child.
115.    Promote public awareness of the extent and nature of violence against 
	women and girls in a given society, and women's right to be protected from 
	it. 
116.    Punish perpetrators of deliberate acts against girls: infanticide, 
	sterilization and abortion when used against nationalities and minorities. 
117.    Link legal systems and women's groups for support and counseling.
118.    Establish culturally-appropriate systems to shelter and support women in 
	abusive situations and to protect them from further violence.

XIV	MEDIA

	Goals:

119.    Recognize the part mass communications play in creating our perception of 
	health and well-being.
120.    Promote greater coverage of women's health issues in the media.
121.    Use new technologies to disseminate information about women's health.

	Actions:

122.    Create public awareness that violence against women is frequently used for 
	entertainment in the media and advocate change in this area. 
123.    Monitor gender stereotyping to ensure positive depiction of women of all 
	ages including pregnant and breastfeeding women.
124.    Eliminate negative cults of beauty emphasizing unrealistic body images 
	which affect women's health through increased rates of anemia, iron 
	deficiency, low birth weight, long-term nutritional depletion and 
	unnecessary cosmetic operations.
125.    Develop advertising codes that limit advertising of tobacco and other 
	substances that are known to be health hazards.
126.    Encourage the media to cover women's health issues.
127.    Use traditional folk media to reach people and elicit feedback.		





XV	MENTAL HEALTH
	
	Goals:

128.    Address causes of mental stress: social discrimination and low status, 
	workload, marital problems, substance abuse, violence, etc. as they affect on 
	women.
129.    Remove the stigma against persons with mental health problems.

	Actions:

130.    Establish crisis centers to deal with the psychological effects that violence 
	and the social and cultural environment have on women.
131.    Establish and promote women's support groups.
132.    Improve existing services by allocating adequate resources for the 
	recruitment and training of staff and the decentralization of treatment 
	centers.
133.    Develop and promote alternatives to the masculine, Western psychiatric 
	framework unfamiliar to women in non-Western countries.
134.    Train mental health providers in crisis management and post traumatic 
	care.

XVI	RESEARCH AND STATISTICS

To be conducted by the UN, national governments and private funders.

	Goals:

135.    Ensure gender equity in medical research
136.    Ensure gender disaggregated research.
137.    Develop data bank on morbidity and causes of mortality in women globally.
	
	Actions:

138.    Support research on the relationship of morbidity and health risks to 
	women's productivity with the gross national product.
139.    Support research and development of lower-cost and accessible treatment 
	options.
140.    Adopt systematic methods for reporting maternal deaths.
141.    Discourage the use of women as guinea pigs for experimentation without 
	proper safeguards or information.
142.    Gather data for studies in nutrition and healing aids. (These projects should 
	be conducted with due regard for the concerns of the local population and 
	should be published in lay language.)
143.    Insure that clinical trials are run with the informed consent of those 
	involved as subjects.
144.    Develop inexpensive and accessible diagnostic tests for cervical and breast cancer.
145.    Support research on the relationship between women's rights and women's 
	health.
146.    Develop appropriate gender-specific indicators to examine the health status 
	of women.
147.   Include women and women's groups in establishing areas of research and 
	testing procedures.

XVII	BIOETHICS

	Goals:

148.    Promote women's participation in the dialogue and formulation of bioethical 
	principles and policies at local, national and international levels.
149.    Support UNESCO International Bioethics Commission in drawing up 
	instruments on the human genome.
150.    Guarantee that women receive all available relevant information, including 
	information on the advantages and disadvantages, chance of success, possible 
	future effects for self, child and others, before procreative procedures or 
	other medical interventions are used.

	Actions:

151.    Create ethical codes for the application of genetics that protect the human 
	rights of women.
152.    Educate scientists and other health care providers to consider the social 
	impact of their work, particularly as it affects women and children.
153.    Develop oversight procedures to curtail potential abuses in medical 
	practices directly involving women and children.
154.  Devise processes for ensuring the accountability of scientists and health 
	care providers for the interests of those affected by their work.



C.   PRINCIPAL AGENTS FOR CHANGE	

I	NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS

155.    Develop a national policy on women's health in all countries in consultation 
	with women and NGO's.
156.    Express commitment and political will to support programs that address 
	key women's health issues.
157.    Ensure representation of women's organizations on all boards and policy 
	making bodies and committees at all governmental levels.
158.    Reinforce the relationship of women's health in all sectors to the economic 
	development of the country.
159.    Provide primary health services to all communities.
160.    Develop statistics and data analyses to assess the health needs of women in 
	order to allocate resources for women's health.
161.    Integrate women's health services in primary care to avoid duplication and 
	uneven distribution of health services.
162.    Determine the effect of cash and non-cash work of women on their 
	mortality and morbidity.
163.    Allocate a certain percentage of GNP to the development of health services 
	for women.
164.    Involve men in health education and disease prevention as well as other 
	levels of health decisions.
165.    Prohibit advertising of tobacco and other products and practices harmful to 
	health.
166.    Create and enforce legislation prohibiting the practice of female genital 
	mutilation and other harmful cultural practices.
167.    Develop national screening programs, for example to discover cervical, 
	breast and uterine carcinomas.
168.    Ensure adequate equipment and supplies for preventive, diagnostic and 
	curative services.
169.    Support existing UN conventions relevant to women's health and human 
	rights like ICN, WSC, ICPD etc.
170.    Develop adequate health care for refugees, migrants and indigenous peoples.
171.    Repeal restrictions that limit women's access to reproductive health care 
	services on the basis of age, income, race or geography.
172.    Foster research on and treatment of diseases and conditions that primarily 
	afflict women and girls.
173.    Provide Women and girls with full access to medical advances that benefit 
	their lives and health.
174.    Provide adequate financing to ensure education, health prevention and 
	promotion as well as primary health services.

II	UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

175.    Reduce the duplication and fragmentation of health services in order to 
	provide better health care and easier access to services.
176.    Create central leadership in the UN to direct women's health services.
177.    Require, fund, administer and publish gender impact statements for 
	programs and policies beginning in 1996.
178.    Devise, fund and implement monitoring instruments that will augment and 
	oversee government machinery for gender responsiveness in planning and 
	policy making.
179.    Develop national report indicators that include both social and economic 
	factors related to health.
	180.    Produce parallel audits and reports on the implementation of the 1995 
	Plan of Action in the years 2000, 2005, 2010.
181.    Gather additional statistics and disseminate finding with respect to:  (1) 
	life expectancy for females at ages 5, 20, and 40; and  (2) chronic and 
	contagious wasting diseases and conditions with a special category for 
	women farmers.
182.   Include in national reports analyses of the value of women's cash and non-	cash work and its relationship to women's health.
183.    Promote and protect women's rights and prohibit violence to their persons.
184.    Adopt and enforce legislation to ban the dumping of out-dated products, 
	harmful pesticides and medical devices in third world markets.
185.    Distribute a list standard approved essential drugs as a basis for drug 
	procurement by the public and private sectors.
186.    Increase the participation of NGO women's groups in deliberations on health 
	issues.
187.    Integrate women's health goals throughout the UN conferences at Cairo, 
	Copenhagen and Beijing.
188.    Increase assistance to health programs focusing on the health of women and 
	girls.
189.    Increase assistance to programs for training more female health workers.
190.    Develop and enforce guidelines for the safe disposal of both military and 
	non-military nuclear wastes and of biological and chemical wastes.

III	NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

191.    Stress the multisectoral aspects of health in society.
192.    Recognize the value of women's work both cash and non-cash, particularly in 
	agricultural communities in child care, elder care, traditional health care 
	(volunteer).
193.    Inform UN agencies, national governments, foundations and other donors of 
	the importance of women's health to the Gross National Product.
194.    Identify major health needs of women and promote research and delivery of 
	services in this area.
195.    Develop grass roots programs that will expand health education and 
	services for women empowering them to make informed decisions on for 
	example, breastfeeding.
196.    Include social services with grassroots participation as essential 
	components of women's health care.
197.    Devise systems for monitoring health services and medical research and 
	experimentation.
198.    Provide women' health projects with long-term institutional and project 
	funding.
199.    Coordinate health care wherever possible with other programs and services.
200.    Advocate and lobby for women centered health policies.
201.    Counter advertising which has a negative effect on women's health.
202.    Work closely together to support, implement and monitor health programs, 
	both governmental and non-governmental.	
203.    Insist that literature concerning drug use be made available in the 
	language(s) of the country.
204.  Attempt to integrate breastfeeding into action plans concerning family 
	issues.
205.    Support women's traditional health knowledge.
206.    Encourage establishment of a safe environment for breastfeeding 
	everywhere.

IV.	DONORS:  CORPORATIONS, FOUNDATIONS, INDIVIDUALS

207.    Recognize the importance of women's health to economic development.
208.    Establish priorities for support which are gender-free and culturally 
	sensitive.
209.    Coordinate program development with other health delivery systems.
210.    Support health research which goes beyond medical research to include both 
	economic and social factors.

V	MEN COLLABORATING / SHARING

211.    Collaborate in the prevention of STDs and HIV by taking an active role in 
	preventing transmission.
212.    Promote and fund greater condom use.
213.    Assume active role and responsibility in promoting and funding women's 
	reproductive rights and access to a full range of health services and 
	education.
214.    Create and support programs to reduce violence against women and to 
	support their rights as human beings.
215.    Champion the development and support of health programs for women and 
	children.


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